2011-03-01

Freebase中Topic互相引用分析

Posted in Web Data Management, 微软, Knowledge Base at 16:22 Author:仲远

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Freebase是一个由社区成员共同努力协作构建的大型知识库。它的许多知识已经被各大搜索引擎,如Google,Bing等,广泛使用以改善搜索结果质量。目前,创建Freebase的公司Metaweb已经被Google收购。

Freebase Logo 

Freebase上有许多的Topic(也可以看成是entity或者是instance),这些Topic有许多的attribute以及value(属性&值)。以Microsoft这个topic为例(以下数据直接从Freebase的DataDump中获得,不一定是最新版):
Name : Microsoft
FreebaseID : /m/04sv4
Source : Freebase
appears_in_ranked_lists : /m/07z1hgx,/m/07y9gzm,/m/05lmyn0, /m/07y9dm6,/m/07y9fcc,/m/07z1hh3
lawsuits : Microsoft Corp v. Zamos,Microsoft vs. Lindows
rivals : Microsoft vs. Netscape
equivalent_instances : /m/07nfbd2
typefaces : Webdings,Corbel,Calibri,Andy Bold,Consolas,Trebuchet MS,Century Gothic,Cambria,Verdana,Candara,Comic Sans,Georgia
brands : /m/05k9ywc
products : /m/05ndw2n,/m/0dg9t__,/m/05ndw25, /m/05ndw2f,/m/0djvphf,/m/05ndw19,/m/05ndw1z, /m/05ndw2w,/m/05k9ypp,/m/05ndw1r,/m/05k9z02, /m/05ndw1j
sponsorship : /m/075zcb_
issue : MICROSOFT CORP Common Stock,MICROSOFT CORP-T Common Stock,MICROSOFT CORP Common Stock,MICROSOFT CORP Common Stock,MICROSOFT CORP Common Stock,MICROSOFT CORP Common Stock,MICROSOFT CORP Common Stock,MICROSOFT CORP Common Stock,MICROSOFT CORP Common Stock
operating_systems_developed : Windows Phone 7,Windows 2000,MS-DOS,Windows 7,MS-DOS 4.0,MS-DOS 7.0,MS-DOS 3.0,Windows 98,MS-DOS 6.0,Windows Vista,Windows Server, MS-DOS 8.0,Windows Server 2003,Windows NT,MS-DOS 1.25,Windows 3.1x,Windows 2000 Professional,MS-DOS 5.0,PC-DOS,Windows XP Home Edition,MS-DOS 2.0,Windows XP,DOS,Windows 95,Microsoft
Windows processors_manufactured : Xbox 360
languages_designed : Visual Basic,Microsoft BASIC,Applesoft BASIC,QuickBASIC,Visual Basic .NET,J#,C#,Abstract State Machine Language,QBasic games_developed : Hover!,Gorillas,InkBall,Minesweeper,Best of Windows Entertainment Pack,Microsoft Pinball Arcade,Aegis Wing
game_versions_developed : InkBall,MechWarrior: Vengeance,Combat Flight Simulator WWII Europe Series,Phantom Dust,Microsoft Train Simulator,Inside Pitch 2003,Fighter Ace,Microsoft Baseball 2001,NFL Fever 2002,Chip’s Challenge,Fury3,Microsoft Entertainment Pack: The Puzzle Collection,Microsoft Pinball Arcade,Allegiance
organization_board_memberships : /m/09txb0f
domains : mobi
websites_owned : Bing Health,Bing,Bing Shopping,Bing Community,Bing News,MSN Search,Bing Travel,Bing Translator,Bing Local,Political Streams,Bing Visual Search,NineMSN,MSN,Bing Images,Windows Live,Bing.com,Bing Maps,Bing for Mobile,Bing Games,MSN Shopping,Bing Search History,Bingbot,Bungie.net,Bing Cashback,Microsoft.com,MSN Games,Ms. Dewey,Bing Entertainment
websites_owned_new : /m/0dc4ysk,/m/0dc4yv4, /m/0dc4ysq,/m/0dc4ytn,/m/0dc4yt5,/m/0dc4yrs, /m/0dc4yqz,/m/0dc4ysw,/m/0dc4ys2,/m/0dc4ytt, /m/0dc4yvy,/m/0dc4yry,/m/0dc4
yrm,/m/0dc4yqm, /m/0dc4yv9,/m/0dc4ysd,/m/0dc4yth,/m/0dc4ys7, /m/0dc4yvg,/m/0dc4ytb,/m/0dc4yvm,/m/0dc4yqg, /m/0dc4yq9,/m/0dc4yrg,/m/0dc4yr3,/m/0dc4yvs, /m/0dc4yq4,/m/0dc4yt0
quotations_about_this_subject : Microsoft looks at new ideas, they don’t evaluate whether the idea will move the industry forward, they ask, ‘how will it help us sell more copies of Windows?’
students_graduates : /m/02nv35r,/m/02nv36h,/m/02nv2xl,/m/02nv2z0,/m/02nv2zg
venture_investors : /m/03dzxfs,/m/03dzywb
investments : /m/03gls_t,/m/05l05z1
description : Microsoft Corporation is a public multinational corporation headquartered in Redmond, Washington, USA that develops, manufactures, licenses, and supports a wide range of products and services predominantly related to computing through its various product divisions. Established on April 4, 1975 to develop and sell BASIC interpreters for the Altair 8800, Microsoft rose to dominate the
home computer operating system (OS) market with MS-DOS in the mid-1980s, followed by the Microsoft Windows line of OSs. The ensuing rise of stock in the company’s 1986 initial public offering (IPO) made an estimated four billionaires and 12,000 millionaires from Microsoft employees. Microsoft would come to dominate other markets as well, notably the office suite market with Microsoft Office.\nPrimarily in the 1990s, critics contend the company used monopolistic business practices and anti-competitive strategies including refusal to deal and tying, put unreasonable restrictions in the use of its software, and used misrepresentative marketing tactics; both the U.S. Department of Justice and European Commission found the company in violation of antitrust laws. Known for its interviewing process with obscure

从以上数据中以及Freebase网站上的Microsoft页面(http://www.freebase.com/view/en/microsoft)我们可以发现,Freebase中的topic存在着许多交互引用的情况。以Products这个属性为例,它的value值为“/m/05ndw2n,/m/0dg9t__,/m/05ndw25,/m/05ndw2f,/m/0djvphf,/m/05ndw19,/m/05ndw1z,/m/05ndw2w,/m/05k9ypp,/m/05ndw1r,/m/05k9z02,/m/05ndw1j”,而我们随便打开其中的一个value值,如 http://www.freebase.com/view/m/05ndw2f ,看到的是一个不具有具体名字(name)的fact:
Consumer product: Xbox 360
Company: Microsoft
这个fact也包含了一组Attribute-Value,并且有些Value也可能是一些topics。

于是在Freebase的Microsoft页面上的Products属性下,在解析到这个fact的时候,就会排除自身的那个属性名,而将剩余的属性名以及属性值显示在Microsoft的页面上。与此类似的是,在上述例子中,Xbox 360的页面上(http://www.freebase.com/view/en/xbox_360)也会有一个属性:Made by company,其Value值为Microsoft。

这就是Freebase上这些topic之间互相引用的机制,以及这些不具有名称的facts存在的意义。

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