2008-11-13

Ubuntu8.1下安装JDK,配置Java运行环境

Posted in 实验室, Java, FreeBSD/Unix服务器 at 18:56 Author:仲远

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安装完Ubuntu8.1之后,如果想要开发或运行Java程序,就需要安装JDK或JRE。下面就介绍一种最为简便的在Ubuntu中安装JDK的方法。

众所周知,Sun公司对于Linux下的的JDK安装控制是相当严格:(1)预编译成二进制的JDK包是需要取得Sun公司授权的;(2)Sun公司有自己的Unix操作系统。或许是因为这两点原因,目前在Linux或Unix系统中安装JDK要比Windows中安装JDK复杂许多。通常许多安装方法都是需要先去Sun公司的Java页面上下载JDK包,再编译安装。

在Ubuntu中,安装JDK也有很多方法。下面介绍一种比较简单的方法:

(1)使用apt-get命令安装:
sudo apt-get install sun-java6-jdk

如果能够很顺利安装完成。那么恭喜你,运气不错。但是,你很有可能会遇到如下错误:“E: Couldn’t find package sun-java6-jdk”。那么你需要首先更新apt-get的源,换句话说,就是更新软件的版本信息。在更新之前,最好修改一下/etc/apt/sources.list,因为如果是在国内上网的Ubuntu,总是去连接国外的服务器,会比较慢。可以先备份原来的sources.list:
sudo cp /etc/apt/sources.list /etc/apt/sources.list.bak

然后修改sources.list:
sudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list

将下面内容覆盖原有内容:

#中国台湾 台湾大学更新服务器
deb http://ubuntu.csie.ntu.edu.tw/ubuntu/ hardy main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://ubuntu.csie.ntu.edu.tw/ubuntu/ hardy main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://ubuntu.csie.ntu.edu.tw/ubuntu/ hardy-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://ubuntu.csie.ntu.edu.tw/ubuntu/ hardy-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://ubuntu.csie.ntu.edu.tw/ubuntu/ hardy-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://ubuntu.csie.ntu.edu.tw/ubuntu/ hardy-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://ubuntu.csie.ntu.edu.tw/ubuntu/ hardy-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://ubuntu.csie.ntu.edu.tw/ubuntu/ hardy-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://ubuntu.csie.ntu.edu.tw/ubuntu/ hardy-proposed main multiverse restricted universe
deb-src http://ubuntu.csie.ntu.edu.tw/ubuntu/ hardy-proposed main restricted universe multiverse#台湾官方更新源
deb http://tw.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu hardy main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://tw.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu hardy-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://tw.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu hardy-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://tw.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu hardy-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://tw.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu hardy-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://tw.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu hardy main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://tw.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu hardy-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://tw.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu hardy-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://tw.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu hardy-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://tw.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu hardy-proposed main restricted universe multiverse

#Ubuntu.cn99.com更新服务器
deb http://ubuntu.cn99.com/ubuntu/ hardy main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://ubuntu.cn99.com/ubuntu/ hardy-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://ubuntu.cn99.com/ubuntu/ hardy-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://ubuntu.cn99.com/ubuntu/ hardy-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://ubuntu.cn99.com/ubuntu/ hardy-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://ubuntu.cn99.com/ubuntu/ hardy main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://ubuntu.cn99.com/ubuntu/ hardy-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://ubuntu.cn99.com/ubuntu/ hardy-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://ubuntu.cn99.com/ubuntu/ hardy-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://ubuntu.cn99.com/ubuntu/ hardy-backports main restricted universe multiverse

#Ubuntu 官方源(欧洲)
deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ hardy main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ hardy-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ hardy-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ hardy-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ hardy-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ hardy main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ hardy-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ hardy-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ hardy-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ hardy-backports main restricted universe multiverse

#中国科学技术大学更新服务器(教育网,推荐校园网和网通用户使用):
deb http://debian.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ hardy main multiverse restricted universe
deb http://debian.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ hardy-backports main multiverse restricted universe
deb http://debian.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ hardy-proposed main multiverse restricted universe
deb http://debian.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ hardy-security main multiverse restricted universe
deb http://debian.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ hardy-updates main multiverse restricted universe
deb-src http://debian.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ hardy main multiverse restricted universe
deb-src http://debian.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ hardy-backports main multiverse restricted universe
deb-src http://debian.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ hardy-proposed main multiverse restricted universe
deb-src http://debian.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ hardy-security main multiverse restricted universe
deb-src http://debian.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ hardy-updates main multiverse restricted universe

#Mirror.lupaworld.com更新服务器(浙江省杭州市双线服务器):
deb http://mirror.lupaworld.com/ubuntu hardy main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirror.lupaworld.com/ubuntu hardy-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirror.lupaworld.com/ubuntu hardy-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirror.lupaworld.com/ubuntu hardy-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirror.lupaworld.com/ubuntu hardy-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirror.lupaworld.com/ubuntu hardy main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirror.lupaworld.com/ubuntu hardy-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirror.lupaworld.com/ubuntu hardy-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirror.lupaworld.com/ubuntu hardy-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirror.lupaworld.com/ubuntu hardy-proposed main restricted universe multiverse

#厦门大学更新服务器(教育网服务器):
deb ftp://ubuntu.realss.cn/ubuntu/ hardy main restricted universe multiverse
deb ftp://ubuntu.realss.cn/ubuntu/ hardy-backports restricted universe multiverse
deb ftp://ubuntu.realss.cn/ubuntu/ hardy-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
deb ftp://ubuntu.realss.cn/ubuntu/ hardy-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb ftp://ubuntu.realss.cn/ubuntu/ hardy-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src ftp://ubuntu.realss.cn/ubuntu/ hardy main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src ftp://ubuntu.realss.cn/ubuntu/ hardy-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src ftp://ubuntu.realss.cn/ubuntu/ hardy-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src ftp://ubuntu.realss.cn/ubuntu/ hardy-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src ftp://ubuntu.realss.cn/ubuntu/ hardy-updates main restricted universe multiverse

#成都市 电子科技大学更新服务器(教育网,推荐校园网和网通用户使用):
deb http://ubuntu.uestc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ hardy main multiverse restricted universe
deb http://ubuntu.uestc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ hardy-backports main multiverse restricted universe
deb http://ubuntu.uestc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ hardy-proposed main multiverse restricted universe
deb http://ubuntu.uestc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ hardy-security main multiverse restricted universe
deb http://ubuntu.uestc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ hardy-updates main multiverse restricted universe
deb-src http://ubuntu.uestc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ hardy main multiverse restricted universe
deb-src http://ubuntu.uestc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ hardy-backports main multiverse restricted universe
deb-src http://ubuntu.uestc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ hardy-proposed main multiverse restricted universe
deb-src http://ubuntu.uestc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ hardy-security main multiverse restricted universe
deb-src http://ubuntu.uestc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ hardy-updates main multiverse restricted universe

#如果无法解析uestc.edu.cn域名,请使用以下地址
deb http://ubuntu.dormforce.net/ubuntu/ hardy main multiverse restricted universe
deb http://ubuntu.dormforce.net/ubuntu/ hardy-backports main multiverse restricted universe
deb http://ubuntu.dormforce.net/ubuntu/ hardy-proposed main multiverse restricted universe
deb http://ubuntu.dormforce.net/ubuntu/ hardy-security main multiverse restricted universe
deb http://ubuntu.dormforce.net/ubuntu/ hardy-updates main multiverse restricted universe
deb-src http://ubuntu.dormforce.net/ubuntu/ hardy main multiverse restricted universe
deb-src http://ubuntu.dormforce.net/ubuntu/ hardy-backports main multiverse restricted universe
deb-src http://ubuntu.dormforce.net/ubuntu/ hardy-proposed main multiverse restricted universe
deb-src http://ubuntu.dormforce.net/ubuntu/ hardy-security main multiverse restricted universe
deb-src http://ubuntu.dormforce.net/ubuntu/ hardy-updates main multiverse restricted universe

#上海市上海交通大学更新服务器(教育网,推荐校园网和网通用户使用):
deb http://ftp.sjtu.edu.cn/ubuntu/ hardy main multiverse restricted universe
deb http://ftp.sjtu.edu.cn/ubuntu/ hardy-backports main multiverse restricted universe
deb http://ftp.sjtu.edu.cn/ubuntu/ hardy-proposed main multiverse restricted universe
deb http://ftp.sjtu.edu.cn/ubuntu/ hardy-security main multiverse restricted universe
deb http://ftp.sjtu.edu.cn/ubuntu/ hardy-updates main multiverse restricted universe
deb-src http://ftp.sjtu.edu.cn/ubuntu/ hardy main multiverse restricted universe
deb-src http://ftp.sjtu.edu.cn/ubuntu/ hardy-backports main multiverse restricted universe
deb-src http://ftp.sjtu.edu.cn/ubuntu/ hardy-proposed main multiverse restricted universe
deb-src http://ftp.sjtu.edu.cn/ubuntu/ hardy-security main multiverse restricted universe
deb-src http://ftp.sjtu.edu.cn/ubuntu/ hardy-updates main multiverse restricted universe

#北京市清华大学更新服务器(教育网,推荐校园网和网通用户使用):
deb http://mirror9.net9.org/ubuntu/ hardy main multiverse restricted universe
deb http://mirror9.net9.org/ubuntu/ hardy-backports main multiverse restricted universe
deb http://mirror9.net9.org/ubuntu/ hardy-proposed main multiverse restricted universe
deb http://mirror9.net9.org/ubuntu/ hardy-security main multiverse restricted universe
deb http://mirror9.net9.org/ubuntu/ hardy-updates main multiverse restricted universe
deb-src http://mirror9.net9.org/ubuntu/ hardy main multiverse restricted universe
deb-src http://mirror9.net9.org/ubuntu/ hardy-backports main multiverse restricted universe
deb-src http://mirror9.net9.org/ubuntu/ hardy-proposed main multiverse restricted universe
deb-src http://mirror9.net9.org/ubuntu/ hardy-security main multiverse restricted universe
deb-src http://mirror9.net9.org/ubuntu/ hardy-updates main multiverse restricted universe

#沈阳市东北大学更新服务器(教育网,推荐校园网和网通用户使用):
deb ftp://ftp.neu.edu.cn/mirror/archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ hardy main multiverse restricted universe
deb ftp://ftp.neu.edu.cn/mirror/archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ hardy-backports main multiverse restricted universe
deb ftp://ftp.neu.edu.cn/mirror/archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ hardy-proposed main multiverse restricted universe
deb ftp://ftp.neu.edu.cn/mirror/archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ hardy-security main multiverse restricted universe
deb ftp://ftp.neu.edu.cn/mirror/archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ hardy-updates main multiverse restricted universe
deb-src ftp://ftp.neu.edu.cn/mirror/archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ hardy main multiverse restricted universe
deb-src ftp://ftp.neu.edu.cn/mirror/archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ hardy-backports main multiverse restricted universe
deb-src ftp://ftp.neu.edu.cn/mirror/archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ hardy-proposed main multiverse restricted universe
deb-src ftp://ftp.neu.edu.cn/mirror/archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ hardy-security main multiverse restricted universe
deb-src ftp://ftp.neu.edu.cn/mirror/archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ hardy-updates main multiverse restricted universe

接下来,执行apt-get的更新过程:
sudo apt-get update

程序将分析/etc/apt/sources.list,自动连网寻找list中对应的Packages/Sources/Release列表文件,如果有更新则下载之,存入/var/lib/apt/lists/目录。

如果你的网速比较快,那么这个过程应该很快就能够完成。

接下来,就可以再重新运行jdk安装命令:
sudo apt-get install sun-java6-jdk

(2)设置默认的java程序的版本:
sudo update-alternatives –config java
按照提示输入对应的选项,指定为JDK 6

(3)设置Java环境变量:
sudo vim /etc/environment

在其中添加如下两行:
CLASSPATH=/usr/lib/jvm/java-6-sun/lib
JAVA_HOME=/usr/lib/jvm/java-6-sun
如果其中已经设置了CLASSPATH和JAVA_HOME,则将其修改为上面的形式,保存退出。

如此,Ubuntu中的JDK就已经安装完成了。其实,如果第一步的命令没有出错,那么安装的过程将更加迅速便捷。即使有第一步命令遇到安装错误,那么通过修改souces.list,速度应该也是比较快的。最重要的是,这种安装方法相对于源码安装,或者是将jdk.bin编译成deb再安装的方法而言,还是比较容易一些的。

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转载自仲子说 [ http://www.wangzhongyuan.com/ ]
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